Her Desire [0.4]
Female testosterone levels Testosterone in women: what it does Symptoms of low testosterone in women Hypoactive sexual desire disorder and low testosterone in women What causes lower testosterone in females? Symptoms of high testosterone in women What causes high female testosterone levels? How to lower testosterone in women Conclusion
Her Desire [0.4]
The case studies do make a couple of things clear. For starters, they demonstrate that sexual pleasure is not just a simple set of reflexes in the body. After all, epileptic bursts of electricity in the brain alone can trigger everything from desire to ecstasy. The clinical examples also point to the parts of the brain that may be involved in sexual experiences. In 2007 cognitive neuroscientist Stephanie Ortigue of Syracuse University and psychiatrist Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli of the Geneva University Psychiatric Center reviewed the case of Mrs. C. W. and 19 other instances of spontaneous orgasms. In 80 percent of them, doctors pinpointed epilepsy in the temporal lobe.
Using fMRI, scientists have pinpointed a number of regions of the brain that kick in when people feel sexual desire. As expected, several of them are in the temporal lobe. One of those regions, the amygdala, orchestrates powerful emotions. Another, the hippocampus, manages our memories. It may become active as we associate sights and smells with past sexual experiences. But despite what Freud thought, sexual experiences are not just a matter of primal emotions and associations. The parts of the brain that light up in the fMRI scans include regions that are associated with some of our most sophisticated forms of thought. The anterior insula, for instance, is what we use to reflect on the state of our own bodies (to be aware of the sensation of butterflies in the stomach, say, or of lightness in the head). Brain regions that are associated with understanding the thoughts and intentions of other people also seem linked with sexual feelings.
Context: Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are highly controversial issues. While there are studies of seriously ill patients' interest in euthanasia and PAS, there are no data on the attitudes and desires of terminally ill patients regarding these issues.
Objective: To determine the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward euthanasia and PAS, whether they seriously were considering euthanasia and PAS for themselves, the stability of their desires, factors associated with their desires, and the proportion of patients who die from these interventions.
Main outcome measures: Support for euthanasia or PAS in standard scenarios; patient-expressed considerations and discussions of their desire for euthanasia or PAS; hoarding of drugs for suicide; patient death by euthanasia or PAS; and patient-reported sociodemographic factors and symptoms related to these outcomes.
Somewhere along the line, Ted has lost sight of why he was working so hard. Success became an object of desire, an end in itself, rather than a means to the goal it originally served, taking care of his family and having their love.
Symptoms of androgen deficiencyThe symptoms of androgen deficiency in women may very closely resemble other conditions. The chief complaint of androgen-deficient women is decreased sexual desire, which is often characterized by a decrease in sexual thoughts and fantasies, as well as actions. Muscle weakness is another frequent complaint, especially in athletic patients. It appears that genital arousal and orgasmic response may also be negatively affected, and vaginal lubrication may decrease, even in women who are menstruating regularly. There is some evidence that testosterone, apart from estrogen, may have a direct function in genital arousal and orgasmic physiology .
Epidemiology of decreased libidoIn 1999, it was reported that the proportion of women in the United States between the ages of 18 and 59 with sexual dysfunction was 43%. However, because little attention has been paid publicly to female sexual dysfunction, this area has remain neglected, and only now is there understanding of such disorders in women. The percentage of women, categorized by age, education, and ethnic background, who complained of decreased sexual desire in the different categories ranged from 22% to 44%, with a mean of 32%. This would put the number of women with decreased libido in the tens of millions in this country alone. How many of these women have decreased androgens is unknown, but the number is estimated to be between 10 and 15 million.
Who may be affected?Most of the current clinical experience with androgens and androgen deficiency has been in post-menopausal women who complain of decreased sexual desire after cessation of menses, and are not helped by estrogen replacement therapy alone. The question of androgen deficiency has largely been ignored in pre-menopausal women. Testosterone levels have usually been measured in this population only when looking for excess production in women complaining of facial hair, loss of scalp hair, infertility, or acne. A recent presentation at the 2000 Female Sexual Function Forum meeting in Boston revealed that 36 premenopausal and 38 postmenopausal women complaining of decreased libido also had decreased total and free plasma testosterone levels as well as decreased levels of DHEA-S.
Guidelines for assessing androgen deficiencyAssays for plasma total testosterone have been available for over 40 years, and the levels are shown to decrease with age in women, as they do in men. The relatively newer free testosterone assay has been in use for a decade, and whether by equilibrium dialysis or by direct radioimmunoassay, it is felt to be more accurate because it measures the amount of testosterone available for activity in the tissues.However, very little data are available on normal ranges for these assays. Even the known data, using total testosterone, suffer from the general flaw that none of the women used for the normal ranges were screened for any type of sexual problems, including decreased sexual desire. Until better data exist, a plasma total testosterone level of
There are no clear guidelines for evaluating women who might have androgen deficiency. Only recently has there been acknowledgement of the need for clear guidelines for measuring decreased androgen levels. In reality, women may develop symptoms of androgen deficiency at any age, from their teen years through late adulthood. The chief symptom is often a decrease in sexual interest, which is not often acknowledged. Another common symptom is fatigue, a symptom associated with many clinical conditions and therefore not likely to increase your suspicion of androgen deficiency. Ask female patients about decreased sexual desire and sexual fantasies, as many are reluctant to mention these problems. In many instances physicians have been quick to ascribe sexual problems to anxiety, depression, premenstrual syndrome, or lack of sleep-especially during the child-rearing years. Peri-menopausal women may complain of decreased sexual desire at the onset of their life cycle changes, attributing it to these changes. This may be the time to test for androgen deficiency. Also, in the postmenopausal woman, test the testosterone levels if decreased sexual desire does not improve after 6 months of estrogen replacement or if she declines such therapy.
The maximisation of expected utility hypothesis brings together two separate claims. The first concerns what rationality requires of the relation between the agent's preferences between different prospects and her beliefs and desires. Stripped of mathematical baggage, the claim can be expressed as follows:
Rationality Hypothesis Rationality requires of an agent that she prefer one prospect over another if and only if the expectation of benefit conditional on the truth of the former is greater than the expectation of benefit conditional on the truth of the latter, relative to her degrees of belief and desire.
The Rationality Hypothesis is generally taken to express nothing more than a consistency requirement on the agent's preferences, akin to the requirements that logic places on her beliefs. Consistency requirements are purely formal in nature and place no substantial constraints on the content of any preference, belief or desire taken in isolation. Moreover, the constraints that they place on sets of such preferences, beliefs and desires are not such as to rule out many that we might be inclined to regard as defective in some way; for instance, because they are immoral, self-destructive or just plain ill-considered.
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So they then went on to say, "We'll take this drug which works on the neurotransmitters in the brain," so this works on dopamine, it increases dopamine, the reward center. It increases norepinephrine, another rewards center and it decreases serotonin. So they decided they'd work on it and see how it really worked in women who complained of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. 041b061a72